On Thursday, May 11, President Trump signed an executive order aimed at strengthening the cybersecurity of federal networks and critical infrastructure. The order is expected to prompt a broad examination of cybersecurity vulnerabilities at federal agencies and re-orient federal cybersecurity efforts toward modernization and shared services. The order also reaffirms the previous administration’s approach to cybersecurity protections for critical infrastructure – with increased emphasis on the power grid – and seeks to promote the growth and sustainment of the nation’s cybersecurity workforce in the public and private sectors. (more…)
The decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union (the CJEU) on Oct. 6, 2015, invalidating the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor Decision (the Judgment) is a landmark judgment. Case C-362/14 Maximillian Schrems v Data Protection Commissioner  ECLI: EU:C:2015:650. By voiding the legal basis for transatlantic data transfers for the 4,400 companies reliant on U.S.-EU Safe Harbor, the Judgment began what has been a seismic year for data protection and crossborder data transfers in the European Union, whose aftershocks will reverberate throughout 2017 and beyond.
Following the establishment of the E.U. – U.S. Privacy Shield last summer, Switzerland has now agreed to a similar framework facilitating the transfer of personal data from Swiss companies to companies based in the United States (hereinafter “Swiss – U.S. Privacy Shield” or “Privacy Shield”) that will allow companies to certify adherence to the framework as of 12 April 2017.
2016 was a year of seismic changes in the global data protection and privacy landscape. Here, we look back at the top ten events and issues that shaped 2016, and are poised to shape the year ahead as well.
Year In Review
1. GDPR Adoption
On April 14, the European Parliament voted to adopt the long-awaited EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), formally completing adoption of the GDPR. The GDPR was published in the Official Journal of the EU on May 25, 2016, giving companies and Member States until the May 25, 2018 effective date to implement the Regulation fully. In the wake of its adoption, businesses should have planning under way for implementation of the significantly expanded Regulation by evaluating whether they are subject to the expanded jurisdiction, and if so, completing an internal gap analysis of current data protection practices as compared with the new requirements and rights under the Regulation. Some of the key aspects to consider include data breach response planning under the new 72-hour notice requirement, reviewing existing data protection notices and consents for the more robust obligations, identifying current profiling activities and existing data protection and retention policies and procedures, ensuring privacy impact assessments are carried out where required, and evaluating whether there is an obligation to appoint a data protection officer. Despite the time until the effective date, the extensive preparation necessary to comply presents a challenge as companies around the world refocus resources to develop compliance plans.
2. Political Cyber Warfare
There is a new front in geopolitical battles. (more…)
*This post first appeared in Lawfare on January 17, 2017.
As the new administration takes office this week, we will start to see just how literally to take Donald Trump’s pronouncements and the promised targeting of his predecessor’s executive orders for immediate destruction. Trade policy appointments signal that statements about being aggressive against barriers to trade should be taken very literally. Wilbur Ross, the prospective Commerce Secretary; Peter Navarro, tapped to lead a new Trade Council on the White House staff; and Robert Lighthizer, designated U.S. Trade Representative, all have been vociferous in calling out China’s mercantilist policies and advocating a more transactional approach to breaking down market barriers in the world’s second largest national economy.
The National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) has issued a revised draft version of its Cybersecurity Framework. The document is issued as “Version 1.1″ of the existing framework, redlined to show changes from the original framework issued almost three years ago. It is a draft, seeking comment. No period for public comment is specified, except that NIST expects to hold a public workshop on the revised draft “around the fall of 2017.”
On 15 December 2016 the Article 29 Working Party (“WP29”) released draft guidelines and FAQs on key provisions in the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”). The guidelines cover the right to data portability, data protection officers and the lead supervisory authority. The WP29 has invited comments from stakeholders on the draft guidelines and FAQs. The deadline for comments is January 31, 2017. Although this invitation for comment is directed at the new guidance, some members of the WP29 have expressed interest in comments on additional issues for the WP29 2017 work plan, for which guidance has not been issued.
Last week, we posted a brief account of the two challenges that have been filed in the General Court of the Court of Justice of the European Union challenging the Privacy Shield, first by Digital Rights Ireland in September and then by La Quadrature du Net last Monday. Today, the Official Journal of the European Union published notice of the Digital Rights Ireland pleading, the first time it has been publicly available.
This posting means the clock has started running on applications to intervene. Applications to intervene are due in 60 days, or January 6, 2016. To establish a right to intervene, an application must include a statement of the circumstances showing “an interest in the result” of the case.
Two legal challenges have been filed at the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) against the European Commission’s adequacy decision on the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield. Privacy Shield was adopted on July 12, 2016 after the CJEU struck down the earlier Safe Harbour agreement in October 2015 over concerns about U.S. surveillance techniques.
Artificial intelligence has been hailed for the promise of breakthrough innovations but also the object of concern by such notable voices as Bill Gates, Stephen Hawkins, and Elon Musk. To explore the issues presented, the White House conducted a review of the opportunities, risks, and regulatory implications of artificial intelligence. Last week, the White House released a comprehensive report, Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence, reflecting a culmination of its review, including public comment and several public workshops that were co-hosted by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy with the National Economic Council, as well as non-profit and academic organizations.