A Caremark-based claim against a board of directors alleging a failure to monitor corporate operations has been said to be “the most difficult theory in corporation law upon which a plaintiff might hope to win a judgment,” or at least to withstand a motion to dismiss. Yet, Caremark has taken on renewed importance — as noted by this blog — following recent high-profile successes on duty-to-oversee claims, most notably in Marchand v. Barnhill in 2019 and In re Boeing in September 2021, and recent shareholder lawsuits alleging that data breach- and cybersecurity-related failures would have been preventable were it not for oversight failures by corporate officers and directors, are being plead asserting Caremark claims. (more…)
On November 26, 2021, the U.S. Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (Proposed Rule) implementing Executive Order 14034 on Protecting Americans’ Sensitive Data from Foreign Adversaries (EO 14034). The Proposed Rule would bring “connected software applications” into the scope of Commerce’s authority to review certain transactions involving information and communications technology and services (ICTS) in the U.S. supply chain and approve or prohibit such transactions or require mitigating measures.1
On August 11, 2021, the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC)1 issued guidance establishing risk management principles and practices to support the authentication of users accessing a financial institution’s information systems and customers accessing a financial institution’s digital banking services (the Guidance). The Guidance is not intended to serve as a comprehensive framework but rather provides financial institutions with examples of effective risk management practices without endorsing any specific information security framework or standard.
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Transportation Security Administration (“TSA”) issued a Security Directive, “Enhancing Pipeline Cybersecurity” on May 28, laying out new cybersecurity requirements for operators of liquids and natural gas pipelines and LNG facilities designated as critical infrastructure.
On January 28, 2021, the UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) published Consultation Paper CP21/3, “Changes to the SCA-RTS and to the guidance in ‘Payment Services and Electronic Money – Our Approach’ and the Perimeter Guidance Manual” (Consultation Paper). This follows the FCA’s announcement in its 2020-21 business plan that payment services were one of its main supervisory priorities1 and its temporary guidance of July 9, 2020, on prudential risk management and safeguarding in light of the COVID-19 pandemic (Temporary COVID Guidance).
The FCA is proposing amendments to:
- the UK onshored versions of EU technical standards on strong customer authentication (SCA) and common and secure methods of communication (UK SCA-RTS);
- its Approach Document on Payment Services and Electronic Money (Approach Document); and
- its Perimeter Guidance Manual (PERG).
On February 4, 2021, the New York Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) issued Circular Letter No. 2 announcing a Cyber Insurance Risk Framework (the Framework) that describes industry best practices for New York-regulated property/casualty insurers. Issuance of the Framework is notable as it represents the first official guidance by a U.S. regulator concerning the increasingly critical issue of cyberinsurance. And while circular letters do not establish new legal requirements or have the force of law, they do set forth the department’s interpretation of the requirements of existing laws and regulations.1
Released on February 1, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) 2021 Report on its Examination and Risk Monitoring Program (Report) provides a roadmap for member firms to use to prepare for examinations and to review and assess compliance and supervisory procedures related to business practices, compliance, and operations. The Report replaces two of FINRA’s prior annual publications: (1) the Report on Examination Findings and Observations, which provided an analysis of prior examination results, and (2) the Risk Monitoring and Examination Program Priorities Letter, which highlighted areas FINRA planned to review in the coming year.
Most cybersecurity professionals are aware of the New York Department of Financial Service’s requirement imposed on DFS-licensed entities to certify their cybersecurity program’s compliance on an annual basis (by April 15th of each year), but less well known is that numerous other states impose similar requirements on regulated insurance entities and that deadline for many states is coming up on February 15, 2021.
On January 19, 2021, the U.S. Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued interim final regulations (interim rules) implementing Executive Order 13873, Executive Order on Securing the Information and Communications Technology Services Supply Chain (EO), which was intended to address alleged threats against information and communications technology and services (ICTS) in the United States. The new review mechanism focuses on transactions involving any acquisition, importation, transfer, installation, dealing in, or use of ICTS that has been designed, developed, manufactured, or supplied by parties owned by, controlled by, or subject to the jurisdiction or direction of “foreign adversaries.”
While the focus on the rules is not foreign investment per se, it will complement the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States’ (CFIUS) investment security review mechanisms. Indeed, the interim rules borrow several concepts and definitions from CFIUS’s recently amended regulations.
Commerce invited interested parties to submit comments on the interim rules. Parties must submit comments by March 22, 2021. Commerce will publish final regulations after considering any comments submitted.
This post provides key takeaways and a brief summary of Commerce’s new review mechanism.